REFERENCES

1 Pregnancy termination breast cancer, 27 studies indicating the correlation, 11 of which "statistically significant" : Brind, Joel, Dr et al, "Induced Abortion as an Independent Risk Factor for Breast Cancer : A Comprehensive Review and Meta-Analysis" Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, Oct. 1996 ; 50 : 481-496

2 Term pregnancy universally recognised as best possible protection against breast cancer: Statistics Canada, Health Reports, Fall 1996, Vol. 8, no. 2, p. 35

3 Traumatic (voluntary) pregnancy termination stops the process that had started at the moment of conception (and that is not completed, naturally, until the birth of the child) of transformation of the beast cells (which, before the first term pregnancy, were mostly fat cells), into lactation glands: "Pregnancy", Encyclopedia of Human Biology, p. 69-79

4 Latex rubber cancer-inducing: Kaeth, K.R., Preventive Medicine, Dec. 3, 2000 (6) : 631-7

5 Untreated STDs can cause cancer: Health Canada: www.hc-sc.gc.ca/hpb/lcdc/bah/epi/hpv_e.html

Pregnancy termination and breast cancer

6 Second-hand smoke and breast cancer: Health Canada : "If you are a non-smoker, exposure to second-hand smoke increases.. by 10% your risk.of breast cancer" www.hc-sc.gc.ca/hl-vs/tobac-tabac/second/fact-fait/tox »index_e.html.

7 In Canada, the incidence of breast cancer has increased forty per cent since 1969, even after adjustment for age. This increase is the second-sharpest in the world: National Cancer Institute, National Cancer Statistics, 1999

8 Forty percent of the increase in breast cancer cannot be explained by any of the officially recognised risk factors: Statistics Canada, Health Reports, Fall 1996, Vol. 8, no. 2, p. 35

9 Women who have undergone one or more pregnancy terminations have more aggressive cancers: Olsson, H. et al, "Proliferation and DNA Ploidy in Malignant Breast Tumours in Relation to Early Oral Contraceptive Use and Early Abortions", Cancer, 1991; 67:1285-90 and "Her-2/neu and INT2 Proto-Oncogene Ammplification in Malignant Breast Tumors in Relation to Reproductive Factors and Exposure to Exogenous Hormones", Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 1991; 83

10 Women who have undergone one or more pregnancy terminations have higher cancer repeat rates: Ownby, H.E., et al., "Interrupted Pregnancy as One Indicator of Poor Prognosis in T1, T2, No, Mo Primary Breast Cancer", Breast Cancer Resources and Treatment, 1983;3:339-344 and Brinton, Roover and Fraumeni Jr., "Reproductive Factors in the Aetiology of Breast Cancer", British Journal of Cancer, Vol. 47, no. 6, 1983

11 Women who have undergone one or more pregnancy terminations have lower survival rates: Clark, R. M. and T. Chua, "Breast Cancer and Pregnancy: The Ultimate Challenge", Clinical Oncology of the Royal Collage of Radiology, 1989;1

12 Correlation of pregnancy termination and breast cancer rates in the Canadian provinces: National Cancer Institute, National Cancer statistics, 1999

13 Breast cancer mortality rates lowest in Mexico and Egypt: Statistics Canada, Breast Cancer Mortality , 1970-

14 Three American states have already adopted « Right-to-know » laws concerning the observed link between pregnancy termination and breast cancer and eleven others are considering such laws: "States consider launching health advisories about abortion", USA Today, March 1, 2001

15 Pregnancy termination and infertility (2-5% of cases): Tzonou, Anastasia, et al, "Induced Abortions, Miscarriages, and Tobacco Smoking as Risk Factors for Secondary Infertility", Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, Vol. 47, (1993), p. 36

16 Pregnancy termination and infertility (2-5% of cases): Hogue, "Impact of Abortion on Subsequent Fecundity", Clinics in Obstetrics and Gynaecology, March 1986, Vol. 13, no. 1

17 Pregnancy termination and infertility (2-5% of cases): Lembrych, "Fertility Problems Following Aborted First Pregnancy", ed. Tom Hilgers, New Perspectives on Human Abortion, 1981, University Publications of America, Frederick, Md., p. 128-134

18 Pregnancy termination and cervical, ovarian and liver cancer (4-fold risk increase) : M-G, Le, et al, "Oral Contraceptive Use and Breast or Cervical Cancer:  Preliminary Results of a French Case-Control Study" in Hormones and Sexual Factors in Human Cancer Etiology, ed. J.P. Wolff, et al, Excerpta Medica, New York, 1984, p. 139-141

19 Pregnancy termination and cervical, ovarian and liver cancer (4-fold risk increase): Parazzini, F., et al, "Reproductive Factors and the Risk of Invasive and Intraepithelial Cervical Neoplasia", British Journal of Cancer, 59:805-809 (1989)

20 Pregnancy termination and cervical, ovarian and liver cancer (4-fold risk increase): Stewart, H.L., et al, "Epidemiology of Cancers of the Uterine Cervix and Corpus, Breast and Ovary in Israel and New York City", Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 37 (i):1-96

21 Pregnancy termination and cervical, ovarian and liver cancer (4-fold risk increase): Fujimoto et al, "Epidemiologic Study of Carcinoa in Situ of the Cervix", Journal of Reproductive Medicine, 30(7):535 (July 1985)

22 Pregnancy termination and cervical, ovarian and liver cancer (4-fold risk increase): Weiss, N., "Events of Reproductive Life and the Incidence of Epithelial Ovarian Cancer", American Journal of Epidemiology, 11, 7(2):128-139 (1983)

23 Pregnancy termination and cervical, ovarian and liver cancer (4-fold risk increase): Beral, V., et al, "Does Pregnancy Protect Against Ovarian Cancer", The Lancet, May 20, 1978, p. 1083-1087

24 Pregnancy termination and cervical, ovarian and liver cancer (4-fold risk increase): La Vecchia, C., et al, "Reproductive Factors and the Risk of Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Women", International Journal of Cancer, 52:351, 1992

25 Pregnancy termination and Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID) (4% of cases): Radberg, T., et al, "Chlamydia Trachomatis in relation to Infections Following First Trimester Abortions", Acta Obstricia Gyneocological (Supp. 93), 54:478 (1980)

26 Pregnancy termination and Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID) (4% of cases): Westergaard, L., "Significance of Cervical Chlamydia Trachomatis Infection in Post-abortal Pelvic Inflammatory Disease", Obstetrics and Gynecology, 60(3):322-325, (1982)

27 Pregnancy termination and Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID) (4% of cases) : Chacko, M., et al, "Chlamydia Trachomatosis Infection in Sexually Active Adolescents: Prevalence and Risk Factors", Pediatrics, 73(6), (1984)

28 Pregnancy termination and Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID) (4% of cases): Barbacci, M., et al, "Post Abortal Endometritis and Isolation of Chlamydia Trachomatis", Obstetrics and Gynecology, 68(5):668-690

29 Pregnancy termination and Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID) (4% of cases): Duthrie, S., et al, "Morbidity After Termination of Pregnancy in First-Trimester", Genitourinary Medicine, 63(3):182-187, (1987)

30 Pregnancy termination and suicide (2-7-fold risk increase) : Reardon, D., World Congress on Women's Health Berlin, March 27-31, 2001. Among the death certificates of 173,000 Californian women, the suicide rate among the women who had given birth was 3.0 per 100,000 while that among the women who had undergone abortion was 7.8. The national average for women in The United States between the ages of 15 and 44 is 5,2.

31 Pregnancy termination and suicide (2-7-fold risk increase): Elliott Institute, "Abortion Four Times Deadlier than Childbirth", Post-Abortion Review, 8(2), April-June, 2000

32 Pregnancy termination and spontaneous abortion (2-3-fold risk increase) : Levin, Ann Aschengrau, et al, "Association of Induced Abortion With Subsequent Pregnancy Loss", Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA),  June 27, 1980, Vol. 243, no. 24, 2495:2499, p. 2495

33 Pregnancy termination and ectopic pregnancy (8-fold risk increase) : Levin, A., et al., "Ectopic Pregnancy and Prior Induced Abortion", American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 72, no. 3 (March 1982), p. 253-256

34 Pregnancy termination and ectopic pregnancy (8-fold risk increase): Daling, Janet, et al, "Ectopic Pregnancy in Relation to Previous Induced Abortion", Journal of the American Medical Association, 253(7): 1005-1008 (February 15, 1985)

35 Pregnancy termination and ectopic pregnancy (8-fold risk increase): Chung, C.S., "Induced Abortion and Ectopic Pregnancy in Subsequent Pregnancies", American Journal of Epidemiology, 115(6) :879-887 (1982)

36 Pregnancy termination and ectopic pregnancy (8-fold risk increase): Tharaux-Deneux, Catherine, et al, "Risk of Ectopic Pregnancy Increases 50% in Women who Have Abortions", American Journal of Public Health, March 998, Vol. 88, no. 3, p. 401

37 Pregnancy termination and cervical incompetence/prematurity/stillbirth (2 to 3-fold risk increase): Harlap and Davies, "Late Sequelae of Induced Abortion: Complications and Outcome of Pregnancy and Labor", American Journal of Epidemiology (1975), Vol. 102, no. 3

38 Pregnancy termination and cervical incompetence/prematurity/stillbirth (2 to 3-fold risk increase): Hogue, "Impact of Abortion on Subsequent Fecundity", Clinics in Obstetrics and Gynaecology, March 1986, Vol. 13, no.1

39 Pregnancy termination and cervical incompetence/prematurity/stillbirth (2 to 3-fold risk increase): Lembrych, "Fertility Problems Following Aborted First Pregnancy", ed. Hilgers, T. et al, New Perspectives on Human Abortion, 1981, University Publications of America, Frederick, Md., p. 128-134

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